The Automated Model Benchmarking (AMBER) framework

We evaluate the ability of CLASSIC to reproduce land surface processes by comparing model outputs against quasi-observational data sets derived from remote sensing products, eddy covariance flux tower measurements (FLUXNET2015), and streamflow measurements. To summarize model performance across different statistical metrics we employ a skill score system that was originally developed by the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) framework. To tailor the approach to our needs, we have implemented ILAMB’s skill score system in an R-package called Automated Model Benchmarking (AMBER) framework.

AMBER evaluates the performance of a model through scores that range from zero to one, where increasing values imply better performance. These scores are computed for each variable in five steps: (1) computation of a statistical metric, (2) nondimensionalization, (3) conversion to unit interval, (4) spatial integration, and (5) averaging scores computed from different statistical metrics. The latter includes the bias, root-mean-square error, phase shift, interannual variability, and spatial distribution.

AMBER Resources

Site-level benchmarking with eddy covariance flux tower sites

Meteorological and initial conditions files for select EC flux tower sites have been processed for model benchmarking and use by CLASSIC users. Example outputs from the most recent release of CLASSIC for these sites are also provided.



The following sites are included in the site-level benchmarking package. Most sites are from the FLUXNET2015 data release. If you plan on using these sites in a paper, please follow the FLUXNET2015 data policy.

Locations of the FLUXNET sites grouped by IGBF biome

Site ID Site Name Latitude Longitude IGBF biome DOI
AU-Tum Tumbarumba -35.6566 148.1517 EBF 10.18140/FLX/1440126
BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest -2.8567 -54.9589 EBF 10.18140/FLX/1440032
CA-Qfo Quebec - E. Boreal, Mature Black Spruce 49.6925 -74.3421 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440045
CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous 42.6353 -80.5577 DBF 10.18140/FLX/1440112
CG-Tch Tchizalamou -4.2892 11.6564 SAV 10.18140/FLX/1440142
CN-Dan Dangxiong 30.4978 91.0664 GRA 10.18140/FLX/1440138
CZ-BK1 Bily Kriz forest 49.5021 18.5369 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440143
DE-Kli Klingenberg 50.8931 13.5224 CRO 10.18140/FLX/1440149
DE-Tha Tharandt 50.9624 13.5652 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440152
DK-Sor Soroe 55.4859 11.6446 DBF 10.18140/FLX/1440155
FI-Hyy Hyytiala 61.8474 24.2948 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440158
FR-Fon Fontainebleau-Barbeau 48.4764 2.7801 DBF 10.18140/FLX/1440161
FR-Pue Puechabon 43.7413 3.5957 EBF 10.18140/FLX/1440164
ES-LgS Laguna Seca 37.0979 -2.9658 OSH 10.18140/FLX/1440225
GF-Guy Guyaflux (French Guiana) 5.2788 -52.9249 EBF 10.18140/FLX/1440165
GH-Ank Ankasa 5.2685 -2.6942 EBF 10.18140/FLX/1440229
IT-Lav Lavarone 45.9562 11.2813 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440169
IT-SRo San Rossore 43.7279 10.2844 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440176
IT-Tor Torgnon 45.8444 7.5781 GRA 10.18140/FLX/1440237
MY-PSO Pasoh Forest Reserve 2.9730 102.3062 EBF 10.18140/FLX/1440240
NL-Loo Loobos 52.1666 5.7436 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440178
PA-SPs Sardinilla-Pasture 9.3138 -79.6314 GRA 10.18140/FLX/1440179
RU-Che Cherski 68.6130 161.3414 WET 10.18140/FLX/1440181
RU-Fyo Fyodorovskoye 56.4615 32.9221 ENF 10.18140/FLX/1440183
RU-Ha1 Hakasia steppe 54.7252 90.0022 GRA 10.18140/FLX/1440184
RU-SkP Yakutsk Spasskaya Pad larch 62.2550 129.1680 DNF 10.18140/FLX/1440243
SD-Dem Demokeya 13.2829 30.4783 SAV 10.18140/FLX/1440186
US-WCr Willow Creek 45.8059 -90.0799 DBF 10.18140/FLX/1440095
US-Wkg Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands 31.7365 -109.9419 GRA 10.18140/FLX/1440096
ZA-Kru Skukuza -25.0197 31.4969 SAV 10.18140/FLX/1440188
ZM-Mon Mongu -15.4378 23.2528 DBF 10.18140/FLX/1440189